Detailed description will be available later.


Hedgepeth, Sonja M., Saidel, Rochelle G. (2010): Sexual violence: against jewish women during the holocaust. Brandeis University PressHolmes, Georgina (2014) Women and war in Rwanda: gender, media and the representation of genocide. London: I.B. Tauris

Europe during and after WWII

Detailed description will be available later.

Yugoslav Wars

Yugoslavia was proclaimed in 1943 and consisted of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia and two autonomous provinces, Kosovo and Vojvodina.  The socialist federation was ruled by Josip Broz Tito until his death in 1980. Citizens of Yugoslavia enjoyed relatively big freedom (compared to the Soviet block), as they were allowed to travel to and work in Western European countries. By the 1980s an economic crisis was emerging in which the most developed countries gave a voice to their ambition to gain independence. The multi-ethnic co-living slowly turned into nationalism, which was mainly triggered by political leaders and fuelled by the media. At the beginning of the 1990s, when Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaimed their independence, the immense ethnic conflict turned into a territorial and ethnic war between these countries and the Serb Slobodan Milošević led Yugoslavia. During the Yugoslav Wars, all sides have committed war crimes, including rape. In the Bosnian and Croatian phases (between 1991 and 1995), approximately 20-50.000 thousand girls, women, boys, and men (mainly Muslims and Croats, but also Serbs) were raped. Many of these women were held in so-called rape camps, established with the aim to forcibly impregnate them in the name of ethnic cleansing. When the war reached Kosovo, rape continued to be a tool, and thousands of women (mainly Albanian) were raped between 1998-1999.

The Yugoslav Wars drove the word’s attention on conflict-related sexual violence. Journalists, scholars, lawyers, historians, etc. started to report about the events and research the phenomenon. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia was the first international court in history which listed rape as a crime against humanity in its statute.

More info, Bibliography

Allen, Beverly (1996). Rape warfare. The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. London: University of Minnesota Press,

Amnesty International (1993). Bosnia-Herzegovina: Rape and sexual abuse by armed forces

Amnesty International (2012). Bosnia and Herzegovina: When everyone is silent: Reparation for survivors of wartime rape in Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Center for Investigation & Documentation (2000). I begged them to kill me. Crime Against the Women of Bosnia-Herzegovina. CID

Human Rights Watch (2000). Serb Gang-Rapes in Kosovo Exposed

Rafstedt, My (2014). Variations in Forms of Sexual Violence. A Comparative Analyses of Bosnia and Rwanda. Columbia University Journal of Politics & Society, pp. 60–79.

Stiglmayer, Alexandra (1994). Mass Rape: The War Against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina. University of Nebraska Press

UNDP (2013). Assessment of the number of sexual violence victims during the Homeland War on the territory of the Republic of Croatia and optimal forms of compensation and support to victims.

Local NGOs

Association of Women Victims of War, Sarajevo

Centre for Women War Victims – ROSA, Zagreb

Documenta, Zagreb

Women’s Room – Centre for Sexual Rights, Zagreb

Zaklada Sunčica, Zagreb